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Joe Miller's fifth grade class at Mountain View Elementary School was about to start long division. Joe knew this was often tough for many of his students, but this year he was particularly worried about DeAnna Robinson. DeAnna had been identified as learning disabled in math, as well as behavior disordered.

If I can't keep DeAnna under control, it will be impossible to teach long division. Plus, special education students have to make AYP on our tests just like regular education students. I have to find a way to help her learn long division.

Joe remembered an in-service on cognitive strategies where they were told about transformational strategies and elaboration strategies. He attempted to dig out his files from the in-service. It had been so long since the in-service, he really could not remember much of the information. He knew the math curriculum coordinator from his district, so Joe decided to call Michelle Schwartz to see if she could help. Michelle agreed to come by and meet with Joe the following Monday.

Hopefully Michelle will have some ideas, thought Joe. If not, I'm not sure what I will do.

Click here to view the Transformation Strategies Tool in the Cognitive Strategies section.
Click here to view the Elaboration Strategies Tool in the Cognitive Strategies section.


  1. A student with BD is more than just a disruptive student. Contrast a disruptive student with a student with real, diagnosed BD.
  2. When teachers try to solve problems, they often focus inwardly. Decide who in the school district and school might be able to help struggling teachers in unique ways.

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