• Universal Design for Learning
    Developed by: Suzanne M. Robinson, Ph.D., University of Kansas 
    UDL is a means of instructional planning that takes into account differences in student learning profiles and skills, prior knowledge, and preferences through creating multiple pathways by which students can access information, engage in learning and remember information, and demonstrate what they know.


  • Reading Acquisition
    Developed by: Sharon E. Green, Ph.D., Emporia State University
    Reading Acquisition involves the three stages of learning to read. The emergent reader is just beginning the reading journey. Second, the beginning reader has mastered the pre-reading skills necessary to begin the reading process. The last stage is the early instructional reader who is one who has made the transition from "learning to read" to "reading to learn". 
  • Reading Comprehension
    Developed by: Keith Lenz, Ph.D., University of Kansas
    Reading comprehension is the process of constructing meaning from text. The goal of all reading instruction is ultimately targeted at helping a reader comprehend text. Reading comprehension involves at least two people: the reader and the writer. The process of comprehending involves decoding the writer’s words and then using background knowledge to construct an approximate understanding of the writer’s message.
  • Writing
    Developed by Gary Troia, Ph.D, University of Washington
    There are several reasons why so many children and youth appear to find writing challenging, which reflect the nature of written expression, changing student demographics, instruction, and individual student characteristics. Composing text is a complex and difficult undertaking that requires the deployment and coordination of multiple affective, cognitive, linguistic, and physical operations to accomplish goals associated with genre-specific conventions, audience needs, and an author’s communicative purposes.
  • Mathematics
    Developed by: David Allsopp, Ph.D., University of South Florida 
    Teaching mathematics to students with special needs can be an exciting and rewarding experience for both teachers and students. Many innovative practices are emerging that are making the learning of mathematics both enjoyable and meaningful for students.

Providing Access to the General Education Curriculum

  • Strategies for Accessing the Social Studies Curriculum
    Short Description
    Developed by John Seevers
    It is important that social studies teachers learn to teach social studies standards to both special needs and general learners. However, there is no single technique, approach or strategy that will accomplish this because of the complex nature of the social studies curriculum. There are tools that teachers can use to enhance the curriculum and their teaching to improve the learning of all students. 
  • Strategies for Accessing the Science Curriculum
    Short Description

Powerful Approaches

  • Classwide Peer Tutoring
    Developed by: Barbara Terry, Ph.D., University of Kansas 
    CWPT is a comprehensive instructional procedure or teaching strategy based on reciprocal peer tutoring and group reinforcement wherein an entire classroom of students is actively engaged in the process of learning and practicing basic academic skills simultaneously in a systematic and fun way.
  • Direct Instruction
    Developed by: Nancy E. Marchand-Martella, Ph.D., Eastern Washington University
    Direct Instruction is a system of teaching that focuses on controlling all the variables that affect the performance of students. This module contains Direct Instruction programs that address reading, language, writing, spelling, and mathematics.
  • Cognitive Strategies
    Developed by: LuAnn Jordan, Ph.D., University of North Carolina, Charlotte.
    Cognitive Strategies are useful tools in assisting students with learning problems. Cognitive Strategies provide a structure for learning when a task cannot be completed through a series of steps. Attention to the steps results in successful completion of the problem.


  • Instructional Accommodations
    Developed by: Sandra J. Thompson, Ph.D., Research Associate, National Center on Educational Outcomes, University of Minnesota 
    One of the ways to increase student access to academic content standards through instruction in the general curriculum is by using instructional accommodations. Accommodations are changes in the way a student accesses learning, without changing the actual standards a student is working toward. Using accommodations can be complicated - the goal is to find a balance that gives students equal access to learning without "watering down" the content.

The University of Kansas prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, ethnicity, religion, sex, national origin, age, ancestry, disability, status as a veteran, sexual orientation, marital status, parental status, gender identity, gender expression, and genetic information in the university’s programs and activities. Retaliation is also prohibited by university policy. The following persons have been designated to handle inquiries regarding the nondiscrimination policies and are the Title IX coordinators for their respective campuses: Executive Director of the Office of Institutional Opportunity & Access,, 1246 West Campus Road, Room 153A, Lawrence, KS 66045, 785-864-6414, 711 TTY (for the Lawrence, Edwards, Parsons, Yoder, and Topeka campuses); Director, Equal Opportunity Office, Mail Stop 7004, 4330 Shawnee Mission Parkway, Fairway, KS 66205, 913-588-8011, 711 TTY (for the Wichita, Salina, and Kansas City, Kansas, medical center campuses).