Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction

- Beck, I., McKeown, M., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York, NY: Guilford Press.


Mosaic of thought: Teaching comprehension in a reader’s worskshop

- Zimmerman, S. & Keene, E. (1997). Mosaic of thought: Teaching comprehension in a reader’s worskshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.



Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding

- Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.


The Fluent reader: Oral reading strategies for building word recognition, fluency, and comprehension

- Rasinski, T. (2003). The Fluent reader: Oral reading strategies for building word recognition, fluency, and comprehension. New York, NY: Scholastic Professional Books.



- Adequate Yearly Progress-a cornerstone of the federal No Child Left Behind act. A measure of year to year student’s achievement on statewide assessments.


Ability Grouped/Teacher Guided Small Groups

- when students are placed in groups based on their ability to read.


Abstract Operations

- generally a higher level thinking activity or a situation in which students are expected to apply previous knowledge


Academic Performance

- the performance exhibited by a child in a classroom setting and on traditional classroom tests



- allows a student to complete the same assignment or test as other students, but with a change in the timing, formatting, setting, scheduling, response and/or presentation. This accommodation does not alter in any significant way what the test or assignment measures. Examples of accommodations include a student who is blind taking a Braille version of a test or a student taking a test alone in a quiet room. (Families and Advocates Partnership for Education (FAPE) retrieved from


Accommodations journal

- student reflection on accommodations used in the general education setting


Acquisition Functions

- the function or reason behind the behavior is to gain access to a person, item, or situation.



- Accommodations in the learning environment, instructional materials, and teaching strategies as well as modifications to task demands and actual tasks.


Algebraic Equation

- A mathematical sentence that contains an equal sign and at least one variable


Algebraic Expression

- An expression made up of a variable alone or a variable combined with numbers and operation symbols.



- a comparison of usually unlike things used to explain a relationship


Anecdotal Observations

- records kept that record behaviors of learners. Usually used by educational professions. Records are often maintained by writing short observations that are dated and kept for use in determining instructional needs.



- stimulus (examples: verbal cues, activities, events or contact with specific people) that immediately precedes a behavior. The stimulus may or may not operate as discriminative for a specific behavior.


Antecedent interventions

- events, people, or things that immediately precede problem behavior


Antecedent, Behavior, and Consequence Chart (ABC Chart)

- a direct observation tool that can be used to collect information about the events that are occurring within a student's environment. "A" refers to the antecedent, or the event or activity that immediately precedes a problem behavior. The "B" refers to observed behavior, and "C" refers to the consequence, or the event that immediately follows a response.


Anticipation Guide

- a reading strategy that asks students to agree or disagree with a series of statements so as to create interest in a reading passage



- attempts at mastering a goal that are validated by the teacher


Asperger's Syndrome

- also known as Asperger's Disorder or Autistic Psychopathy, is a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) characterized by severe and sustained impairment in social interaction, development of restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. These characteristics result in clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.


In contrast to Autistic disorder (Autism), there are no clinically significant delays in language or cognition or self help skills or in adaptive behavior, other than social interaction.


At Risk

- Performance on an assessment that indicates the student may not be successful in reaching a particular skill or task.


Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD)

- a condition that can make it hard for a person to sit still, control behavior, and focus and maintain attention (NICHY Disability Information)


Audio-Taped Text

- a classroom accommodation often used to minimize the effects of students' learning problems by enabling them to listen to and/or read along with text


Augmentative communication

- help individuals in producing and/or understanding speech. The technology can range from a board with pictures representing a student's daily needs to sophisticated electronic speech synthesizers.


Authentic Learning Contexts

- Allowing students to explore, discover, discuss, and meaningfully construct mathematical concepts that involve real-world problems and projects that are relevant annd interesting to the learner.


Authentic Reading

- real-world reading materials such as newspapers and magazines



- a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, usually evident before age 3, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences.



- The speed and accuracy of word recognition and spelling; Automaticity is the goal of word study instruction. Achieving automaticity in the mechanics reading and writing frees cognitive resources for comprehension.


Bar graphs

- a type of graph that is used when a portion or a whole are being represented or when reporting a percentage; this type of graph is particularly useful when comparing information across individuals, settings, or situations



- An initial data record of a target behavior's occurrence. A baseline is used to compare the initial data to the data collected after an intervention is implemented.


Beginning Readers

- A period of literacy development that begins when students have a concept of word and can make sound-symbol correspondences. This period is noted for dysfluent reading and writing, and letter name-alphabetic spelling.



- any observable and measurable act of the student (sometimes called response)


Behavior Disorder (BD)

- category of special education where a student is unable to control behavior in varying degrees


Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)

- The purpose of this plan is to spell out what behaviors are being targeted for change and how change will be handled. Certain elements of the behavior intervention plan are required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and others are simply good information to have written down.
Required Elements

  • a description of previously tried interventions and how well they did or didn't work in changing the behavior
  • a definition/description of the behavior being targeted
  • a description of the interventions that will be used including who will be involved
  • specific procedures that will be followed and an explanation of how data will be collected
  • a measurable description of the behavior changes you expect to see
  • a description of how the success of the interventions will be measured
  • a schedule for when/how often the plan will be reviewed to determine its
  • effectiveness
  • a description of when and how information will be shared between home and school
  • a description of how the student's behavior will be handled should it reach crisis, proportions (This is called the crisis plan)

Recommended Elements

  • a list of the student's strengths and abilities
  • important information about the student that could impact the plan
  • a statement describing the function (purpose) of the targeted behavior (from the functional assessment)
  • a description of the behavior that will replace the inappropriate behavior (This is called the replacement behavior)


Behavior Support Team (BST)

- a group of individuals, including the parents, and those who work with the child, who when a student has behaviors that impede his or her learning or that of others, meet on a regular basis to discuss the target behavior, develop a hypothesis, conduct an FBA, and use the data collected to determine the best BIP for the student


Behavioral Intervention Program Center (BIP Center)

- is a federally funded program. Behavior specialists from the BIP provide positive, proactive strategies for students with intellectual disabilities, autism, and developmental delays who have severe problem behaviors. The program's technical assistance team based model, provided in Georgia's local school systems, includes:

  • Functional Assessments
  • Intervention Strategies
  • Follow-up Assistance

The BIP specialists promote positive behavioral support (PBS) with an emphasis on student dignity and respect. The specialists build capacity by training a behavior support team in each school teaching them how to make data-based decisions and proactive environmental changes that alleviate the target behaviors.



- Short term or long term assessment goal that indicates that a student is on grade level.


Big Ideas

- Important concepts or principles that are more specific than the ten Social Studies Standards and that work as an overarching theme of an entire Social Studies year.



- to combine the sounds represented by letters to pronounce a word; sound out or the joining of the sounds represented by two or more letters with minimal change in those sounds, as /gr/ in grow, /spl/ in splash: consonant cluster


Bloom's Taxonomy

- Bloom's taxonomy is a classification system of educational objectives based on the level of student understanding necessary for achievement or mastery

  • Knowledge - simple recall of information, memory of words, facts and concepts
  • Comprehension - lowest level of real understanding
  • Application - use of generated knowledge to solve an unfamiliar problem
  • Analysis - breaking an idea into parts so that the relationship among the parts become clear
  • Synthesis - putting pieces together to constitute a pattern or idea clearly seen before
  • Evaluation - use of a standard of appraisal, making judgements about the valve of ideas, materials or methods


Bonus Points

- Bonus points are points awarded by the teacher to students for following CWPT rules and interacting appropriately with each other. These points are added to the students' total points.


Boys Town Model

- Girls and Boys Town Psychoeducational Treatment Model-popularly known as PEM. This treatment model combines social skills instruction with traditional intervention methods to improve treatment quality, reduce negative behavior, and build on the child's strengths. PEM is based on a straightforward concept: Everyone can be a powerful therapeutic agent. Click here to learn more about the Boys Town Model -


Brainstorming Map

- much like a concept map or graphic organizer, but used to freely generate ideas


CWPT Folder

- A CWPT folder is where students keep their instructional materials to be used during the peer tutoring sessions. The teacher may place a score sheet in this folder as well.


CWPT Teams

- In CWPT, the class is often divided into two teams and in each team, the students are paired into partners. In this way, pairs on the same team add up their scores for a cumulative team score.


Changing scales and weights

- a grading adaptation that changes grading criteria or the weight given to a particular assignment; may help students earn a passing grade



- an informal assessment that involves keeping a list of students and objectives on a sheet. Teacher then check off mastery of these goals



- Multi-letter units consisting of blends of letter-sound matches; used in Gaskins, Ehri, Cress, O’Hara, and Donnelly’s consolidated sight word phase.


Class meetings

- Coming soon..


Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT)

- Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) refers to a class or instructional strategies in which students are taught by peers who are trained and supervised by classroom teachers (Greenwood, Maheady, Delquadri, 2002).



- two or more teachers sharing the responsibilities of instruction



- a style for direct interaction between at least two co-equal parties voluntarily engaged in shared decision-making as they work towards a common goal


College Entrance Exams

- examinations like the SAT and ACT which are taken as a requirement to entering college


Community based instruction

- teaches students functional skills of everyday living. Through community based instruction, students learn skills that are identified on the IEP (Individualized Education Plan) in such a way that those skills can be used in everyday life.


Competing Behavior Pathway

- a chart used to create a link between the FBA and the BIP. Competing behaviors are behaviors that are mutually exclusive. An individual cannot concurrently engage in two competing behaviors. For example, screaming and talking softly are competing behaviors. When applied to BIPs, target behaviors and desired behaviors are competing behaviors. A child cannot simultaneously perform "ignore the teacher" and "follow directions" at the same time. The purpose of the Competing Behavior Pathway chart is: (1) to emphasize the importance of building the behavior intervention plan around the hypothesis statement; (2) to recognize competing behavioral alternatives (desired or acceptable behaviors) to the target behavior; and (3) to determine approaches for making the target behavior ineffective, inefficient, or irrelevant through changes to the routine or environment.


Completion Items

- test items which direct the test to fill in a missing word



- The lowest level of real understanding; accurately understanding what is communicated.


Concept Comparison Chart

- A two-dimensional table that allows teachers to display information about two or more important concepts. It illustrates how the concepts are alike and different.


Concepts about Print

- book handling skills which include directionality, one-to-one match, hierarchical concepts and conventions of print.


Concepts about print

- book-handling skills which include directionality, one-to-one match, hierarchical concepts and conventions of print



- tangible--students need to interact with something tangible, in this case, they could touch and feel the post-it notes



- a professional development opportunity in which you listen to national speakers on educational topics, as well as attend small break out sessions to improve your knowledge of education



- A legal requirement that private information about a student with disabilities be shared only with persons who have a right to know this information.



- having exactly the same size and shape



- any stimulus offered contingent on a specific response.


Consequence interventions

- used to minimize reinforcement for problem behavior and increase reinforcement of desirable behavior


Considerate Text

- text that is easier to read based on its ability to help the reader understand; for example, considerate text often includes headings and bold-faced words


Consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words

- The pattern of consonants and vowels within a syllable or word - The spelling pattern for the word mat would be represented as a CVC pattern while the spelling pattern for the word mail would be represented as a CVVC pattern.



- affects how a student will respond to situations by temporarily increasing or decreasing reinforcers in the environment


Contextual Fit

- in order to have contextual fit, the people who will be implementing the intervention need to find the procedures consistent with their own values, have the ability to implement the intervention, and perceive the intervention as in the best interest of the student.


Cooperative Learning/Cooperative Groups

- a teaching arrangement that refers to small, heterogeneous groups of students working together to achieve a common goal; cooperative learning is based on Plaget's theory concerning the impact of social interaction on cognitive development.


Critical Questions

- central question in a piece of writing; in fiction writing, it often involves the theme



- An instructional sequence used to reinforce important information. \“Cue\” informs the students that the routine will be used. \“Do\” presents the unit organizers. \“Review\” checks for understanding and reinforces the information for the students.



- Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills; an assessment



- The ability to translate letters to sounds, syllables, and words.


Decontextualized talk

- Language that does not depend on the context to be understood; the meaning is entirely in the text.


Decontextualized talk

- language that does not depend on the context to be understood; the meaning is entirely in the text


Desirable consequence

- Coming soon..



- providing varying levels of instruction and assessment for different learners.


Direct Instruction

- direct instruction involves a teacher demonstrating and directly teaching a selected skill


Direct Observation

- focuses on recording patterns of behavior and events in the environment as they are actually occurring. Data should be collected at various times and in different settings, continuing until discernible patterns emerge.


Directed Reading Activity

- A pre-reading and post-reading instruction format in which the teacher guides students to make connections through personal experiences, other texts, and the text they are reading to construct meaning.


Due Process

- A legal proceeding initiated by the district or parent to resolve a conflict situation.


Duration Recording

- used to document the amount of time a student spends engaging in a behavior



- a program with the ability to read content from the Internet, word processing files, scanned-in text or typed-in text, and further enhances that text by adding spoken voice, visual highlighting, document navigation, page navigation, type and talk capabilities.


Early Language Development

- language development that occurs between birth and school age


Early Language Development

- language development that occurs between birth and school age.


Elaboration strategies

- the student uses elements of what is to be learned and expands them; types include phrases/sentences, analogies, and relationships


Emergent Readers

- Students who display skills aligned with early interaction with books and other print, as from pretend reading to genuine efforts to understand the nature and meaning of print.


Emotional Behavior Disorders

- a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance--

(A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.
(B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.
(C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.
(D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.
(E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. [Code of Federal Regulations, Title 34, Section 300.7(c)(4)(i)] As defined by the IDEA, emotional disturbance includes schizophrenia but does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance. [Code of Federal Regulation, Title 34, Section 300.7(c)(4)(ii)]


Environmental Interventions

- Changing the variables within a student's physical surroundings to increase desirable behavior and decrease problem behavior.


Eric Carle: Picture Writer

- New York : Philomel Books & Scholastic, 1993, ISBN 0399226249



- Trying to avoid/get out of a certain situation/task.



- test items which require a written narrative or expository response


Essential Components, Project Based Learning

- a project-based learning method is a comprehensive approach to instruction in which students learn through creating and doing


Event Recording

- a process for documenting the number of times a behavior occurs



- any determined behavior that affects learning, often requiring a special learning plan that is different than the general educational curriculum


Experiential Learning Exposure

- A type of learning that uses doing rather than reading or hearing. It requires students to plan and execute an activity, then journal about the experience.


Explanatory talk

- explaining a concept or idea out of the here and now; does not require conversation it can be a one way unilateral communication


Explanatory talk

- explaining a concept or idea out of the here and now; it does not require conversation it can be a one way unilateral communication



- refers to how students demonstrate what they have learned.


Extended discourse

- more than one exchange; extended two way conversation


Extended discourse

- more than one exchange; extended two way conversation


Fill in the blank

- a type of testing technique in which students supply the missing or omitted information



- Freedom from word-identification problems that might hinder comprehension in silent reading of the expression of ideas in oral reading; automaticity.


Formative Assessments

- on-going assessments, reviews, and observations used to improve instruction and student learning


Formative assessment

- DuFour



- the reason or motivation behind a target behavior. Functions usually fall into two categories: 1) to gain or 2) to escape.


Functional Activities

- activities that are meaningful and support the development of functional life skills such as self-feeding


Functional Analysis

- a process whereby a behavior analyst systematically changes potential controlling factors (consequences, structural variables, i.e., task difficulty or length) to observe effects on a persons behavior. These determinations involve staging situations that will reduce, eliminate, or provoke the challenging behavior to test whether the hypothesis is correct. This process is usually a reversal design or multi-element design.


Functional Assessment Checklist

- includes the collection of functional assessment information, identifying the hypothesis or hypotheses maintaining problem behavior, confirming that the hypothesis or hypotheses are correct, and creating a written summary of functional assessment findings. Used in the FBA process.


Functional Assessment Team Meeting

- the formal meeting and active involvement of the teachers, parents, and other individuals from the school and community and the student during the functional assessment process. These meetings help to ensure that the information gathered will take into account the strengths and needs of the student, accurate information about student's environment, and the perspectives of the people who will be implementing any future interventions.


Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)

- a process used to gather details about the events that predict and maintain a student's problem behavior. The purpose of the FBA is to provide information that will be used to design effective positive behavior support plans. To support a student who is engaging in problem behaviors in your classroom, it is important to consider the reasons why a student may be engaging in problem behavior. Behaviors are not repeated unless they serve a function for the student.


Getting Acquainted Interview

- An interview process that is designed to get to know a new staff member.



- visual representation of data; varieties include line graphs, bar graphs, pie charts, and scatter plots


Graph Dissection

- An activity where students take apart or break down information found in graphs, charts, maps and other educational graphics.


Graphic Organizers

- Visual and verbal map of vocabulary and concepts and their relationships designed to assist learners in comprehending selections.


Graphic Organizers

- a visual representation of knowledge that structures information by arranging important aspects of a concept or topic into a pattern using labels


Guest Book

- a website entry in which a visitor to the site can post a comment which will be displayed for all other users of the site to see and read


Guided Reading

- an instructional model involving the teacher and small group of children of similar reading ability. While the teacher is meeting with one group of students, other students are involved in skill centers and independent reading activities.


Guided notes

- a skeleton outline that lists main points of a verbal presentation and provides designated spaces for students to complete as the speaker elaborates on each main idea (Lazarus, 1991).


HELP Signs

- Rather than holding their hand up or verbally cuing the teacher that they need help, the students hold up a sign that says "HELP" or place a desgnated item on their desk to let the teacher know that they have a question.


Hands-on projects

- these are student learning experiences that are active, rather than paper-pencil in format


Historical Perspective Timeline

- A strategy used to help students understand and feel the passage of time in a Social Studies year.



- An end product or summary of the functional assessment. A hypothesis statement provides information about environmental events that may increase the likelihood of problem behavior, the environmental events that precede problem behavior, and the probable function of the problem behavior.



- a video creation program available though apple on iMac computers



- memorizing target information by creating meaningful visual, auditory, or kinesthetic images for the target information.


Implementation Plan

- One way to organize the PBS team's activities is by using an implementation plan. A written PBS plan describes what interventions will be implemented while the implementation plan records the actions needed and who will be responsible for each task.


Improvement over past performance

- a grading adaptation that involves goal setting to try to motivate students and increase effort



- a term used to describe a classroom where typically developing children and children with disabilities are taught together using modifications to the curriculum to keep the students with disabilities on grade level. The children with disabilities are not usually pulled out for extended periods of one on one instruction.


Individualized Education Plan

- a written document that describes the educational plan for a school-aged child with a disability developed by a team of professionals, the child's parents, and possibly the parent which includes a personalized list of learning objectives aimed at improving performance.


Initial Sounds Fluency (ISF)

- The DIBELS Initial Sounds Fluency (ISF) Measure is a standardized, individually administered measure of phonological awareness that assesses a child's ability to recognize and produce the initial sound in an orally presented word.



- whatever content or information is to be learned can be represented in different ways.


Instructional Level

- a child is considered at instructional level for a passage when they are able to read between 90%-97% of the words correctly


Instructional framework

- a format for delivering instruction based on the level of support needed by the students and specific instructional objectives set by the teacher


Integrated Instruction

- a unit which infuses learning from several learning disciplines such as language arts, social studies, science, and math


Interdisciplinary team

- team consisting of parents, regular education teacher, special education teacher, principal and individual interpreting evaluation information who make decisions about program planning for a special education student.


Introductions Checklist

- A tool used by staff to track the persons in a building or program to whom the employee has been introduced.



- a math term that means opposite


Iowa Test of Basic Skills

- General achievement tests for grades kindergarten through eight. Along with others, such as the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills and the Stanford Achievement Test Series, they are designed to measure how well a student has learned the basic knowledge and skills that are taught in elementary and middle schools, in such areas as reading and mathematics.


Item Analysis

- Item analysis is a process of examining class-wide performance on individual test items


Itinerant Staff

- School staff such as the physical therapist, occupational therapist, and teacher of the deaf who travel from school to school providing direct and consultative services for students with disabilities.



- a cooperative learning technique where students work in teams to become experts on a topic and then share that information with members of other teams.



- A method of activating background knowledge about a topic (Know), setting learning goals (Want to learn), summarizing learning from text (Learned), and promoting continued investigation (How to find out more). The plus (+) portion of the method is a written summary of what was learned and what additional things student would like to learn.


Keyword mnemonics

- a strategy that helps students learn to associate unfamiliar words to be learned with words that are familiar and that may rhyme or have some physical resemblance to the target word.


Language Impairment

- An impairment in the ability to understand and/or use words in context, both verbally and non-verbally. Some characteristics of language impairment include improper use of words and their meanings, inability to express ideas, inappropriate grammatical patterns, reduced vocabulary and inability to follow directions. One or a combination of these characteristics may occur with those who are affected by language learning disabilities or developmental language delay.


Latency recording

- a type of duration recording that involves an observer measuring how long it takes for a behavior to begin after a specific verbal demand or event has occurred


Learner Checklist

- list of expectations available to the child before the actual presentation to facilitate preparation and also used during and after the presentation for assessment


Learning Disabilities/Specific Learning Disabilities

- a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. Learning disabilities do not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 34 Code of Federal Regulations §300.7(c)(10)


Learning Goals

- these are the goals which you expect the children in your classroom to master as a result of the lesson and/or learning experience


Lesson Plans

- any written format that identifies what lessons will be taught to groups of students as well as individual students


Letter–sound identification

- an assessment to determine an individuals letter-sound association skills


Letter–sound identification

- an assessment to determine an individuals letter-sound association skills


Letter–sound identification

- an assessment to determine an individuals letter-sound association skills


Licensed Staff (certified staff)

- A school staff person who holds a license such as a teacher, principal, director of special education, and superintendent.


Line Supervisor

- A person who has supervisor responsibilities because they are in a position of responsibility and directly see the work of others.


Line graphs

- the most common type of graph used to evaluate behavioral data; shows individual data points on a graph that are connected by a line that creates a path, which provides a visual pattern


Link word

- in Cartoon Vocabulary, the word that sound like or looks like the vocabulary word the student is to learn; the purpose of the linking word is to help the student remember the vocabulary word that is to be learned.


Listening Centers

- An independent activity for individuals to listen to and read along with books on tape/CD


Listening comprehension

- The ability to comprehend spoken language; a measure of language acquisition; the knowledge of the very same words and sentences which are to appear later in reading.


Literacy block

- the block of time reserved for literacy instruction in a classroom


Literacy block

- the block of time reserved for literacy instruction in a classroom


Literacy components

- the National Reading Panel has defined five components as critical to literacy instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, comprehension


Literacy components

- the National Reading Panel has defined five components as critical to literacy instruction; Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Vocabulary, Fluency, Comprehension


Logical consequence

- Coming soon..


Low language

- coming soon..



- Concrete objects used to introduce or reinforce concepts. They can assist the teacher to actively involve students in learning mathematical concepts. They can be used to motivate learning, stimulate students to think mathematically, and introduce and reinforce concepts.


Master List of Task and Duties

- A master list of all the tasks and duties that a paraeducator might be asked to perform.


Matching Items

- Matching items are presented in groups as a series of stems or prompts that must be matched by the student to one of a group of possible answer options.


Mental retardation

- a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills. Children with mental retardation take longer to learn to speak, walk, and take care of their personal needs such as dressing or eating. (NICHY Disability Information).



- a special experienced teacher who is paired with a new teacher



- thinking about one's own thinking


Mild Mental Retardation (MMR)

- Subnormal intellectual development as a result of congenital causes, brain injury, or disease and characterized by any of various cognitive deficiencies, including impaired learning, social, and vocational ability.



- memorizing target information by relating a cue word, phrase, or sentence to the target information.



- to lead by example, to concretely act out the process so that students can learn how to replicate it



- an adjustment to an assignment or a test that changes the standard or what the test or assignment is supposed to measure. Examples of possible modifications include a student completing work on part of a standard or a student completing an alternate assignment that is more easily achievable than the standard assignment. (Families and Advocates Partnership for Education (FAPE) retrieved from


Momentary Time Sample

- an interval recording strategy involving observing whether a behavior occurs or does not occur during specified time periods


Motor Challenges

- refers to disabilities that affect’s an individual’s ability to move such as cerebral palsy


Movie Tributes

- television and video media created for the purpose of educating people


Multiple Intelligences

- These intelligences are: Linguistic intelligence, Logical-mathematical intelligence, Spatial intelligence, Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence, Musical intelligence, Interpersonal intelligence, Intrapersonal intelligence, and Naturalist intelligence. This theory and its later expansion and development by others such as Dr. Thomas Armstrong, has had a significant impact on instruction today.



- a type of item where students are presented with a question and select the correct answer or response from a list of answer options



- federal legislation called No Child Left Behind which mandates that all students are proficient in math and reading by the year 2014.


National Conference on Reading

- a national meeting complete with nationally recognized speakers and presentations all dedicated to the purpose of reading instruction


Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)

- The DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) measure is a standardized, individually administered test of the alphabetic principle - including letter-sound correspondence and of the ability to blend letters into words in which letters represent their most common sounds.


Nth Term

- An algebraic expression that generalizes a number sequence


Number Sense

- Understanding the structure of our number system and using number appropriately. Have the ability to apply reasoning when working with numbers.



- goals for student learning


Occupational Therapist

- A person who helps people improve their ability to perform tasks in their daily living and working environments. An oppupational therapist works with individuals who have conditions that are mentally, physically, developmentally, or emotionally disabling to help them develop, recover, or maintain daily living and work skills. Occupational therapists help clients not only to improve their basic motor functions and reasoning abilities, but also to compensate for permanent loss of function. Their goal is to help clients have independent, productive, and satisfying lives.


On-the-job Training

- Training that occurs in a job setting for both new and experienced staff. Effective training includes four components: theory, demonstration, practice and feedback, and coaching.


Open-Ended Questions

- a testing technique which requires students to write in an answer with no direction or example


Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

- in children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), there is an ongoing pattern of uncooperative, defiant, and hostile behavior toward authority figures that seriously interferes with the youngster's day-to-day functioning


Oral Language

- a child’s receptive and expressive language abilities


Oral Language

- a child’s receptive and expressive language abilities


Organizational strategies

- allows the learner to manipulate information; examples include prioritizing, clustering, chunking, and categorization



- The process of helping a new employee become familiar with and adjusted to a situation or policy.


Orientating strategies

- directs students' learning to a task; this may be done through teacher cues, highlighted material, and/or student self-regulation


Orientation Components Checklist

- A tool used by staff to help prioritize, deliver, and document orientation/training activities to a new staff.



- expected product from students


PBS Brainstorming tool

- used by a student and his or her team to brainstorm possible interventions. The PBS planning tool helps the team focus select interventions that are directly linked to information from the functional behavioral assessment.


PBS Planning Tool

- used by a student and his or her team to brainstorm possible interventions. The PBS planning tool helps the team focus select interventions that are directly linked to information from the functional behavioral assessment.


PBS self-assessment checklist

- a document that can be used to review whether a team has included the critical features of a functional behavioral assessment and PBS plan.


Paired Reading

- Joint reading aloud between two individuals who read a story simultaneously.


Paraeducator Task Preparation/Confidence Inventory

- After completion of a Master List of Task and Duties, the Paraeducator Task Preparation/Confidence Inventory is used to identify which tasks the paraeducator is prepared to perform now as well as those tasks that will require training.



- employees who, following appropriate academic education/instruction and/or on-the-job training, perform tasks as prescribed, directed, and supervised by fully qualified professionals. Job titles for paraprofessionals may include terms such as "aide, " "assistant," "associate," "para-educator," "instructional assistant," and "classroom aide," among others. The intent of using paraprofessionals is to supplement not supplant the work of the teacher/service provider. (National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities retrieved from


Partial Interval Recording

- a strategy that involves observing whether a behavior occurs or does not occur during specified time periods; the behavior may or may not occur in any part of the interval, but it does not consume the entire interval


Partners' Chart

- A partners' chart is a posting of the tutoring partners. This chart may include the points that each pair of students earned during the week.



- A design or sequence that is predictable because some aspect of it repeats.


Performance Assessment

- A task or set of tasks designed to simulate real-world challenges and problems. Such tasks are often open-ended. Evaluation of a performance assessment is based on an established set of criteria often called a rubric.


Permanent Product Measurement

- refers to the real or concrete objects or outcomes that result from a behavior and are used by teachers on an ongoing basis in many different ways


Person-centered and quality of life interventions

- variables related to areas such as learning, working, recreation, spirituality, and social and community affiliations; these interventions work to improve these areas


Person-centered planning (PCP)

- ongoing problem-solving process that is used by a group of people who are interested in helping the student build a lifestyle based upon his or her preferences, needs, and choices


Personalized Job Description

- An individualized job description that is specific to the roles and responsibilities of a paraeducator.


Pervasive developmental disorder

- Coming soon..



- The smallest unit of sound within a word.


Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF)

- The DIBELS Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) measure is a standardized, individually administered test of phonological awareness that assesses a student's ability to segment three- and four-phoneme words into their individual phonemes fluently.


Phonemic Awareness

- The ability to hear and manipulate the individual sounds within words.


Phonemic Awareness Activities for Early Reading Success (Grades K-2)

- Blevins, Wiley (1997). Phonemic awareness activities for early reading success (Grades K-2). New York, NY: Scholastic Professional Books.


Phonological Awareness

- the awareness of the constituent sounds of words in learning to read and spell. Note: the constituents of words can be distinguished in three ways: a. by syllables, as /book/. b. by onsets and rimes, as /b/ and /ook/. c. by phonemes, as /b/ and /oo/ and /k/.


Phrase cards

- High frequency words learned through the context of short sentences and phrases.


Physical Impairment

- a condition in which a physical feature on your body does not function at normal capacity


Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS System

- (PECS) A way for non-verbal students to communicate their needs and desires through the use of pictures. Children using PECS are taught to approach and give a picture of a desired item to a communicative partner in exchange for that item. Pictures are usually downloaded from a computer program entitled Boardmaker¨.


Picture Walk

- The teacher covers the print of a text so that the student focuses on the picture. The teacher talks through the pictures with the student asking questions commenting on story content and establishing a good meaning base.


Picture Writing

- a style of writing where an author uses pictures as well as text to convey a story


Pie charts

- a type of graph that may be useful when representing portions of a whole


Planning Strategies

- Planning strategies help students achieve the related goals of generating, organizing, and sifting ideas for a paper.


Point Sheet

- a document used to monitor a student's behavior. The student receives "points" for engaging in appropriate behavior and after earning a predetermined number of point the student is able to exchange those points in order to receive items and/or privileges that have also been predetermined.


Point System

- In CWPT, the tutee earns two points for correctly answering a question and earns one point for correcting a question that they originally got wrong.


Positive Behavior Support Plan

- A written plan that is developed based on a functional assessment of problem behavior. Behavioral support plans contain multiple intervention strategies designed to modify the environment and teach new skills.


Positive behavior support interventions

- developed after a functional behavioral assessment (FBA); generates ideas for interventions


Post-traumatic stress disorder

- A psychiatric illness that can occur following a traumatic event in which there was threat of injury or death to an individual, or an event that has been observed.


Prediction and Confirmation Chart

- a reading strategy that asks students to predict what will happen in their reading and then confirm what really did happen; this strategy can also be used as a note-taking strategy



- coming soon..


Primary Implementers

- The special education teacher assigned to a student.


Prioritized content and related assignments

- a grading adaptation that allows content to be prioritized so that students are informed of how best to spend time and effort


Problem Solving

- Working with a specific problem to find a reasonable solution and including an explanation of the solution.



- creating many pathways for students to improve their opportunity to learn the material presented.


Progress Reports

- reports, usually the students IEP goal pages, that notifies students' parents of their progress toward IEP goals, usually completed and sent home quarterly.


Progress on IEP Goals

- a grading adaptation that provides an incentive to work toward IEP goals; should address a skill area


Rally table

- In pairs, students alternate generating written responses to problem solving tasks


Rare words

- words not commonly found in the receptive or expressive vocabulary of a typical child of a particular age


Rare words

- words not commonly found in the receptive or expressive vocabulary of a typical child of a particular age.


Read aloud

- A teacher or other fluent reader reads aloud a text that exceeds the students’ reading abilities, modeling fluent reading and reading strategies for a variety of purposes


Read aloud

- A teacher or other fluent reader reads aloud a text that exceeds the students’ reading abilities, modeling fluent reading and reading strategies for a variety of purposes.


Readers’ Theater

- A performance of literature read aloud by one or more individuals to practice expressive reading and fluent reading.


Reading Checkouts

- timed oral reading passages. Data can be used to find students accuracy and reading rate at a specific level.


Reading Level

- assessing a student to determine a student’s instructional reading level


Reading Specialist license

- a license granted to an individual by the state department of education after completion of coursework and practicum in the reading field.


Reading road map

- these are literary features that help guide your comprehension and reading of certain materials, such as captions that accompany photographs and graphs, and section and chapter titles


Record Review

- reviewing information generated from records to obtain insights into factors affecting the child's behavior. The following sources of information may be relevant in a record review: Diagnostic and medical records, Psychological information, Assessments from therapies (e.g., occupational, physical, or speech therapy, etc.), Social histories, Developmental profiles, Previous behavior management programs, Individual educational plans, Individual and family support plans, Anecdotal records, Incident reports/discipline summaries



- guiding the student toward positive interaction


Reflective Practice

- A practice of reflecting upon one’s work in order to expand learning.


Rehearsal strategies

- uses repeated practice of information to learn it


Reinforcement Inventory

- a list of items that are reinforcing to a student that is generated with input from the student and used in providing positive reinforcement for appropriate behaviors


Repeated Readings

- Reading a text over and over to achieve fluency.


Resource teacher

- a specialist teacher who works to help individual and small groups of students with special needs achieve meeting their I.E.P. goals.



- short term, temporary care provided to people with disabilities in order that their families can take a break from the daily routine of care giving. Unlike childcare, respite services may sometimes involve overnight care for an extended period of time.


Response Accommodation Graphic

- graphic depiction of accommodation levels moving to independence


Response Accommodations Graphic

- graphic depiction of accommodation levels moving to independence


Response Cost

- a "toll" or "fine" imposed in response to the student's display of undesirable behavior


Response accommodations

- coming soon..



- teaching a concept a second time, often using a different instructional method


Revising Strategy

- A series of steps designed to achieve the related goals of identifying mismatches between intended and actual texts, adding meaningful content to clarify, support, and elaborate upon what has been already written, and produce a document that communicates with precision the author’s ideas in a way that is engaging for the reader.



- 1. n. identical of very similar recurring final sounds in word within or, more often, at the ends of lines of verse. 2. n. verse or recurring words that represent such sounds. 3. v. to write words or lines of verse with such recurring sounds.



- A two-step cooperative group structure
In step one the teacher poses a problem to members of a group. In step two each student, in turn, writes a response to the problem. During RoundTable, students pass a single sheet of paper and a single pencil around the group to record responses. Group members may assist the one who is responding if help is requested.
    Source: Andrini, Beth. Cooperative Learning & Mathematics. Kagan Cooperative Learning. San Clemente. 1998. p 39.



- a rating scale that consists of ordered categories, together with descriptions of criteria that may include exemplars, which are used to sort student-produced responses into levels of achievement (Schafer et al., 2001).



- A mnemonic device used to help students recall the steps in revising and editing written text. SEARCH stands for Set goals—Examine paper to see if it makes sense—Ask if you said what you meant—Reveal picky errors—Copy over neatly—Have a last look for errors.



- Student Improvement Team. A group of teachers and administrators who are the first step in evaluating if a student needs an Individual Education Plan.


SIT (Student Improvement Team)

- a group of education professionals, including special education teachers, who meet to discuss the needs of students and offer suggestions



- A mnemonic devise used to help students recall the parts of a good story and the steps in writing a good story. SPACE should assist in the parts of the story and stands for Setting elements—Problems—Actions—Consequences—Emotional reactions. LAUNCH should assist in the steps to write a good story and stand for List idea words for my story—Ask if my ideas will meet my writing goals—Use encouraging self-talk—Now write a story with million dollar words, sharp sentences, and lots of detail—Challenge myself to develop more good ideas—Have fun.


Safety and Emergency Procedures

- A written building or classroom plan that specifies actions that staff are to take in various situations involving the safety of students or staff.



- The interaction between the teacher and the learner that provides modeling, guidance, and support as new strategies are learned



- layers of support moving toward independence


Scatter Plot

- an interval recording method that can help discover patterns related to a problem behavior and specific time periods. The scatter plot is a grid with time plotted on the vertical line divided into periods of time. The horizontal line on the scatter plot grid designates the date observation occur.



- a person who writes down is dictated to them by the student dictates through speech, sign language, pointing, or use of an assistive communication device. The student is responsible for telling the scribe where to place punctuation marks for indicating sentences and paragraphs and for spelling certain words.



- the act of dividing the spoken word into the smallest units of sound



- A self-management strategy that involves defining a target behavior, observing one's own behavior and recording the occurrence of one's own behav.



- one who voices own support needs


Self-management skills

- used to teach students to independently complete tasks and take and active role in monitoring and reinforcing their own behavior


Self-questioning Strategies

- coming soon


Sensory Diet

- a planned and scheduled activity program designed to meet a child's specific sensory needs.



- An ordered list of numbers or objects


Setting Accommodations

- accommodations that change the location in which a student receives instruction or the conditions of an instructional setting


Setting Events

- Any occurrence that affects a student's responses to reinforcers and punishers in the environment. Setting events can be due to environmental, social, or physiological factors. Occurrences that affect a behavior at one point in time may change the likelihood of a targeted behavior at a later point.


Setting event interventions

- events that momentarily change the values of reinforcers and punishers in a student’s life



- Observing staff or students either openly or covertly for the purpose of assessment and training, or to monitor safety.


Showcase Portfolio

- a selection of work representing a student's progress and achievements. It can be shown at conference time or Open House.


Sight words

- 1. a word that is immediately recognized as a whole and does not require word analysis for identification. 2. a word that is taught as a whole.


Significant Support Needs (SSN)

- A special education classroom or program that is designed to work with students with moderate-to-severe developmental disabilities and multiple disabilities - students in SSN classrooms/programs are often in general education classrooms for a portion of the school day.



- figures having same shape, but not necessarily the same size


Small group instruction

- a group of students (usually 3-6) who read at the same instructional reading level, demonstrate similar reading behaviors, and share similar instructional needs


Small group instruction

- a group of students (usually 3-6) who read at the same instructional reading level, demonstrate similar reading behaviors, and share similar instructional needs.



- a technological teaching tool. It is essentially a white board that is hard wired to a computer


Sophisticated vocabulary

- a large vocabulary that reflects more extensive world knowledge


Sound Chunks

- common letter combinations found in words, usually only part of a word.


Sounds in Action: Phonological Awareness Activities & Assessment

- Zgonc, Yvette (2000). Sounds in action: Phonological awareness activities & assessment. Peterborough, NH: Crystal Springs Books.


Special Education Generalist

- A special education teacher who is endorsed to work with a wide range of students with disabilities. Some special education teachers are trained as specialists and work primarily with students with specific identified disabilities such as learning disabilities.


Special Needs

- a term used to describe a child who has disabilities and requires special services or treatments in order to progress


Specific Learning Disability

- a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. Learning disabilities do not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 34 Code of Federal Regulations §300.7(c)(10)


Specific aids

- allow students to connect a concrete object or other cue to the task (for example, globes, maps, and counters)


Specific attentional aids

- the student's attention is maintained by connecting a physical object or a verbal cue to the task


Speech Language Pathologist

- A therapist who assists children who have communication disorders in various ways. They provide individual therapy for the child; consult with the child’s teacher about the most effective ways to facilitate the child’s communication in the class setting; and work closely with the family to develop goals and techniques for effective therapy in class and at home. The speech-language pathologist may assist vocational teachers and counselors in establishing communication goals related to the work experiences of students and suggest strategies that are effective for the important transition from school to employment and adult life.


Speech Synthesis

- Speech synthesis, or text-to-speech, is a category of software or hardware that converts text to artificial speech. A text-to-speech system is one that reads text aloud through the computers sound card or other speech synthesis device. Text that is selected for reading is analyzed by the software, restructured to a phonetic system, and read aloud. The computer looks at each word, calculates its pronunciation then says the word in its context (Cavanaugh, 2003).


Spelling Instruction

- Evidence-based instructional procedures for explicitly teaching developmentally appropriate spelling skills and strategies. They include ideas for organizing weekly spelling instruction, curriculum considerations, spelling activities, and spelling study strategies.


Spelling Strategies

- Use of sound, sight recall, and analyzing strategies by students to produce a spelling word rather than by memorization. More information and resources can be found at


Spiral Curriculum

- curriculum that is structured in such a way that concepts are reviewed, retaught, and extended in combination with the introduction of new concepts


Student Assistance Team/Student Improvement Team (SIT)

- A group of people from different perspectives or disciplines that join together to problem solve and develop educational and behavioral plans. Team members may include the student, parents or other family members, teachers, therapists, community members, job coaches, vocational rehabilitation counselors, and paraprofessionals.


Student Effort

- a grading adaptation that focuses on specific behaviors to represent "effort"; often it can serve as motivation for a struggling student


Student Facilitated Skill Center

- students work independently at learning centers on skills the teacher has selected


Student Facilitated Writing Activity

- students independently write a response to an assigned topic


Student Improvement Plan (SIP)

- Suggested plan for program changes for students from the Student Improvement Team.


Sustained Silent Reading (SSR):

- also DEAR (Drop Everything and Read); a block of time set aside to read within the structure of a school day


Systematic Handling Techniques

- prescribed consistent method for dealing with a behavior in the same way each time so that the consequences for the behavior are always the same actions even from different adults in the environment.



- A two-column table used to display pairs of numbers that are related to one another.



- seven piece set of plastic shapes including two small triangles, one square, one parallelogram, one medium triangle, and two large triangles. Each set is made up of one color. These can be reproduced and laminated using cardstock. Tangrams can be used for non-numerical and numerical use, problem solving, spatial concepts, and a variety of other content areas.


Target Behavior

- the behavior to be changed during the intervention. Also called dependent variable or problem behavior.


Teacher Guided Small Groups

- a small group of students of similar reading ability


Teacher Observation

- an assessment strategy that involves closely watching children's performance and/or behavior


Teaching Literature

- periodicals and publications that address teaching methods and content


Teaching communication skills

- the goal is to reduce the occurrence of problem behaviors to low levels to build a positive relationship that will facilitate communication between the adult and the student



- group of educators working together


Team Teaching

- a teaching approach consisting of two or more teachers planning and executing a lesson together


Team planning

- definition for team is already in the glossary



- A specific number located in a sequence.


Text Analysis

- A systematic analysis of the text materials including the structure, the focus, and special learning assists, to help students know how to extract information from the textbook in an organized, efficient manner.


Text-to-world connections

- Connections that readers make between the text and the bigger issues, events, or concerns of society and the world at large.


Textual Cues

- clues within the text that assist the reader; e.g. boldfaced words, headings for sections, etc


Think Alouds

- In literacy instruction, “a meta-cognitive technique or strategy in which the teacher verbalizes aloud while reading a selection orally, thus modeling the process of comprehension” (Davey, 1983).



- a learning strategy that involves students first generating ideas and answers by themselves, then in pairs, and then via a class-wide discussion


Tiered Assignments

- According to Tomlinson (1995), tiered assignments are used by teachers within a heterogeneous classroom in order to meet the diverse needs of the students within the class. Teachers implement varied levels of activities to ensure that students explore ideas at a level that builds on their prior knowledge and prompts continued growth. Student groups use varied approaches to explore essential ideas.


Time Timer

- a time keeping device to help students manage their time. For more information about the Time Timer click here (


Timing Accommodations

- accommodations changing the allowable length of time to complete nassignments, test, and activities, and may also change the way the time is organized


Token Economy

- a positive system for reinforcing a student for compliance with pre-set rules. The student earns "tokens" (examples: tickets, bracelets, stickers etc.) Once the student has earned a pre-determined amount they can trade them in for a reward. The rewards are based on the function of the behavior. If the student's motivation is to gain teacher attention then the reward is something that involves attention from the adult. If the motivation of the target behavior is escape, then the student earns a planned break.


Training Plan Form

- A format for planning training that specifies what training is needed, who might provide it, and when it might occur.



- writing down information from one place to a paper, often from board to paper.


Transformational strategies

- student simplifies information by converting difficult or unfamiliar information into more manageable information; imagery and mnemonics are types of transformational strategies


Traumatic Brain Injury

- A disability not born with or received during birth, but a disability that grew out of head injury, most often from car crashes. This type of disability most often affects reasoning, attention, abstract thinking, problem-solving, perception, and physical function.


Unit Organizers

- An instructional tool using two-dimensional picture of the content of the unit to allow teachers to make abstract and complex ideas more concrete and simple to students.


Unit organizer

- a content enhancement device developed by B. Keith Lenz et al. that helps teachers and students plan and focus on individual units of instruction


Universal Applications

- in this situation, it refers to vocabulary words which would work in the answers of any of the optional essay questions


Universal Design for Learning

- the design of instructional materials and activities that makes the learning goals achievable by individuals with wide differences in their abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write, understand English, attend, organize, engage, and remember. Universal design for learning is achieved by means of flexible curricular materials and activities that provide alternatives for students with differing abilities. 


Use of process to complete work

- a grading adaptation that promotes increased independence; involves the use of learning strategies and/or assistive technologies



- an accurate measurement, fair, reliable



- A symbol, usually a letter that represents an unknown quantity


Venn Diagram

- made up of two or more overlapping circles. They are useful for describing and comparing attributes and characteristics of items (things, people, places, events, ideas, etc.)


Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale

- An instrument for assessing how many age-appropriate, socially adaptive behaviors a child engages in.


Visual Schedule

- Provides a student with information regarding the sequence of events or routines he will be engaging in throughout the day. A picture schedule may use words, photographs or drawings to convey information and is a method for providing a student with a sense of predictability and control over his environment


Visual Scripts

- a written or picture dialogue designed to assist students in engaging in appropriate conversations with others.


Visual Tracking System

- Coming soon..



- Those words known or used by a person or group.



- Six-Trait Writing Instruction, developed by the University of Oregon, focuses on the six traits or components of good writing. Voice is the trait that gives writing its style or personality.



- An on-line learning exercise that directs users to specified web sites, in order to find information and complete a task.



- an inquiry-oriented activity in which some or all of the information that learners interact with comes from resources on the Internet


Whisper Reading

- a strategy used during guided reading where the students all read a story quietly to themselves while the teacher walks around and listens


Whole Interval Recording

- a strategy that involves observing whether a behavior occurs or does not occur during specified time periods; the behavior may or may not consume the entire interval


Word knowledge

- refers to a word and symbol definitions and is primarily verbal. word knowledge unites to form each person’s mental dictionary or thesaurus.


Wordless Books

- Books that tell a story through illustrations; there is no text.


Work Style and Preferences Inventory

- A questionnaire designed to help staff understand one another’s work styles and preferences in order to develop a cohesive work team by respecting one another’s needs and by minimizing conflicts.


World knowledge

- refers to word and symbol definitions and is primarily verbal; world knowledge unites to form each person’s mental dictionary or thesaurus

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