Teaching After Reading Self-Questioning Strategies
What are self-questioning strategies?
Self-Questioning is the ongoing process of asking questions before, during, and after reading that are used by a reader to understand text. The questions posed are based on clues that are found in the text and are generated to spark curiosity that focuses the reader's attention on investigating, understanding, and connecting to the text. A self-questioning strategy is a set of steps that a student follows to generate, think about, predict, investigate, and answer questions that satisfy curiosity about what is being read.
How can Self-Questioning Strategies help your students?
Poor readers approach reading as a passive experience. That is, they read the words with the idea that the meaning will reveal itself, if they read enough words. However, good readers challenge what they are reading by asking questions as they read. Why did they say that? What do they mean by that? I wonder what they were doing there? How did she do that? Why am I reading this? Many students have not learned that they can increase their comprehension by using self-questioning as a strategy, and they have not learned how to use self-questioning strategies as an ongoing process for connecting to text (i.e, Why am I reading this? How can I use this information? Do I agree with this?). Self-Questioning requires a reader to look for text clues that make them wonder, think about possible meanings, ask questions about the meanings, make predictions about the answers, read to find the answers, evaluate the answers and their predictions, and reconcile differences between their questions, their predictions about answers, and the information actually provided by the author in the text.
Self-Questioning is more than just asking questions. Students must learn to pay attention to textual clues that they typically pass by. They must then use their background knowledge to generate questions and make predictions. This background knowledge will personalize the questions and predictions, but since background knowledge will vary with the individual, each reader will wonder about different aspects of the text. Once these have been generated, the student must learn that the answers to all questions may not be found, that predictions may not be accurate. Then the student must learn to correct his or her thinking. This is important, because some research indicates that once some students make certain judgments or predictions about what will be read, they read to confirm their prediction regardless of the information actually provided in the text. Teachers need to instruct students and provide practice in self-questioning strategies that help students learn to continuously question, predict, confirm, correct, and reconcile information. As students encounter text in different areas, they need an approach to question what they are reading, and they need to see how individuals with sufficient background knowledge use this question to reconciliation process. Asking students to self-question and read without the teacher describing and routinely modeling how to use an appropriate self-questioning strategy, especially with varying text lengths, content areas, and text complexities, will not improve the ability of students to self-question. However, since almost all learning in school requires that a student ask question and answer questions, self-questioning comprehension strategies are important to teach.
Who can benefit from instruction in Self-Questioning Strategies?
Some students can generate questions fairly well. However, as text becomes more difficult, becomes more abstract, increases in length, is more inconsiderate, or the student does not have sufficient background knowledge, comprehension will falter and more deliberate work on self-questioning is required. Struggling readers may need instruction and practice in surveying text and generating questions before they read; other students may need instruction and practice in using self-questioning as they read; others might use self-questioning as a way of summarizing or studying. Regardless of when the self-questioning process is used, the basic components of the strategy are the same.
What are the types of Self-Questioning Strategies that I might teach?
Self-Questioning is used before, during, and after reading text. However, if students do not know or use self-questioning as an ongoing strategy during reading, they are likely to have trouble with before and after use of the strategy. Therefore, a self-questioning strategy for use during reading is described first in some detail, followed by descriptions of how the strategy is used before and after reading.
- The During Reading Self-Questioning Strategy. This strategy focuses on teaching the students to use a self-questioning process as they read paragraphs and sections of text.
- The Before Reading Self-Questioning Strategy. This strategy focuses on teaching students to use the self-questioning process as a way of previewing text before reading begins and creating a set of guiding questions to check comprehension during reading.
- The After Reading Self-Questioning Strategy. This strategy focuses on teaching students to generate questions and answer questions after they have read the text. This strategy is usually used for studying and self-testing information that should have been gained from the text.
How do you teach the After Reading Self-Questiong Strategy?
- Select the After Reading Self Questioning Strategy to teach as a simple follow-up to instruction in the During Reading Self-Questioning Strategy. To promote self-questioning after reading larger chunks of materials, Section and Multi-Section Summarization Strategies may be more appropriate.
- Before you start asking students to develop post reading questions, explain to them the purpose of learning how to use post reading questioning. Focus your rationale on the idea that revisiting questions readers have asked and generating questions about what was read help answer the "So what?" question and confirm what was learned from the author. It also gives a chance to determine if the reader agrees or not or whether there is a need to know more.
Describe the strategy and make a list of the steps on the overhead or board. Ask students to write the steps of the strategy and what each step means in their notes. The critical steps of the strategy that you could describe might include these steps:
- Step 1: Explore the "Look Back" questions:
Looking back, I know...
(Based on what the author has revealed, how has my knowledge has changed?)
Looking back, I think...
(Based on what the author has revealed, do I agree?)
Looking back, I question...
(Based on what the author has revealed, what additional questions do you have?)
Looking back, I feel...
(Based on what the author has revealed, what emotions do you feel?)
Looking back, I predict...
(Based on what the author has revealed, what do you think will happen in the future?)
- Step 2: Name a big organizing question.
- Based on your answers to the Look Back questions, create one big question that you think captures the big question for what you have read. Develop a question you think the author would be most pleased if you could answer.
- Step 3: Developing big answer.
- Develop an answer to your big organizing question. Develop an answer you think would get you an "A" on the test for capturing the main idea of this reading.
- After describing the After Self-Questioning Strategy, model how the strategy should be used for a chapter of a textbook. Using a section of text you and students have already read, say each step of the strategy as you model it, so students see where you are as you start and complete each step. Think aloud as you model and explain how you made each decision. Using another reading passage the class has read, model the strategy again, and this time begin to ask students to participate in using the strategy.
- Now that students see how the strategy works, instruct students to partner with another student and have them practice describing the steps to one another as you walk around the class and listen to their practice. Tell them to refer to their notes to help them describe each step. After the partner practice, move into a group review and ask students questions about the purpose of each step of the strategy. The goal of this activity is to make sure each student understands each step of the strategy and how to use it.
- After the strategy has been presented, post the steps of the strategy in a place in the classroom where you and the students can refer to it when needed. For the next three or four chapters, model how you would end the chapter using the strategy.
- Make reading assignments that require students to use this strategy at the end of their reading. Ask student to write their big question and answer it. Two sections of text are about the right length of reading for this type of assignment. As students end the reading assignment, walk around the room and see which students have difficulty generating and answering the big question.
- Students who have difficulty with the After Self-Questioning Strategy may need more individualized attention than what can be provided via large group instruction. Students who become fluent with this strategy should either move to multi-section summarization or more difficult materials. Continued practice in the steps of a strategy by students who comprehend the sections without going through the steps will result in low motivation.