Teacher Tools Related to Data-Based Decision Making

  • Permanent Product Measurement
    Permanent products refer to the real or concrete objects or outcomes that result from a behavior and are used by teachers in a variety of ways. Written homework assignments, art projects, and in-class quizzes are examples related to academic behavior. Permanent product recording can also monitor the occurrence of problem behavior.
  • Event Recording
    Event recording is a process for documenting the number of times a behavior occurs.
  • Momentary Time Sample Recording
    Momentary time sample recording is an interval recording method that involves observing whether a behavior occurs or does not occur during specified time periods. Once the length of an observation is identified, the time is broken down into smaller intervals of equal length. The observer records whether the behavior occurs or does not occur at the very end of each interval.
  • Partial Interval Recording
    Partial interval recording is a strategy that involves observing whether a behavior occurs or does not occur during specified time periods. Once the length of an observation is identified, the time is broken down into smaller intervals of equal length. The observer records whether a behavior occurs any time during the interval.
  • Whole Interval Recording
    Whole interval recording is a strategy that involves observing whether a behavior occurs or does not occur during specified time periods. Once the length of an observation is identified, the time is broken down into smaller intervals of equal length. The observer records whether the behavior occurs throughout the entire interval.
  • Latency Recording
    Latency recording is a type duration recording that involves an observer measuring how long it takes for a behavior to begin after a specific verbal demand or event has occurred.
  • Duration Recording
    Duration recording is used to document the amount of time a student spends engaging in a behavior that has a clear beginning and ending.
  • Graphing
    Graphs provide quick and easy visual summaries that allow teachers to determine patterns of behavior, evaluate the results of new teaching strategies, and establish whether or not interventions are having the desired effects.

Developed by: 
Rachel Freeman, Ph.D., Marie Tieghi-Benet, M.S., University of Kansas


The University of Kansas prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, ethnicity, religion, sex, national origin, age, ancestry, disability, status as a veteran, sexual orientation, marital status, parental status, gender identity, gender expression, and genetic information in the university’s programs and activities. Retaliation is also prohibited by university policy. The following persons have been designated to handle inquiries regarding the nondiscrimination policies and are the Title IX coordinators for their respective campuses: Executive Director of the Office of Institutional Opportunity & Access, IOA@ku.edu, 1246 West Campus Road, Room 153A, Lawrence, KS 66045, 785-864-6414, 711 TTY (for the Lawrence, Edwards, Parsons, Yoder, and Topeka campuses); Director, Equal Opportunity Office, Mail Stop 7004, 4330 Shawnee Mission Parkway, Fairway, KS 66205, 913-588-8011, 711 TTY (for the Wichita, Salina, and Kansas City, Kansas, medical center campuses).